The Year 9 English course deals with the study of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Students engage with a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts, for both serious analysis and enjoyment. These include media articles, films, plays, novels and multimodal texts. The course explores themes of human experience, interpersonal relationships and a range of ethical, cultural and global issues. Students learn to express their ideas fluently in both written and oral forms through imaginative, informative and persuasive types of texts. The course is designed to teach students to use a variety of texts structures and language features for intended effects and particular audiences.
In Year 10 English, Nossal High Students have the opportunity to select English electives which appeal to their particular areas of interest and they are encouraged to explore a wide variety of texts. In all electives students develop their understanding of persuasive language and all Year 10 English electives also provide many opportunities for students to hone their written and oral expression.
VCE English Mainstream
The study of English encourages the development of literate individuals capable of critical and imaginative thinking, aesthetic appreciation and creativity. English incorporates the key discipline concepts of texts and language, and the dimensions of reading, writing, speaking and listening. The VCE English curriculum aims to be interesting and challenging for students with a wide range of expectations and aspirations. Teachers select texts which reflect the needs and interests of their students. The study of texts focuses on creating and analysing texts, understanding and interpreting texts, and moving beyond interpretation to reflection and critical analysis. Students will also develop competence and confidence in creating written, oral and multimodal texts. Students are expected to read widely in order to support the achievement of all outcomes.
VCE English Language
English Language is a challenging and fascinating journey into the complexities of our language and how we use it. Rather than just teaching basic grammatical rules, English Language explores the different functions of language (spoken, written and signed), how children acquire language and how English has changed over time. English Language also focuses on how we use language differently depending on our social environment and our identity. In English Language, our laboratory is the world around us.
Literature is the study of the texts created by people within a culture and tradition, from past eras and the present day. Literature introduces us to new worlds of experience. VCE Literature students engage in close reading, analysis, and critical and creative writing. The course evolves through lively class discussion, with students presenting varying points of view. Assessment tasks include formal essays, creative writing and oral presentations. Studying Literature is enriching and challenging. The understandings of the human condition which studying Literature provides are invaluable for people in widely different careers ranging from medicine and the law, to engineering and science.
YEAR 9 HUMANITIES
In Year 9 Humanities, students explore a variety of topics including history, geography and economics. In history, students begin with a study of both world wars and the social and political upheavals that occurred in the first half of the 20th Century. Students then move on to study our contemporary society and the global economy. Within this unit they complete an in-depth ‘guided inquiry’ task which asks them to explore the causes of wealth disparity between nations.
In Geography, the focus is the natural world and the challenges facing the environment. Students learn about the physical Earth, the dynamic nature of its systems and the impact of natural disasters. They then complete their second guided inquiry of the year by exploring the future prospects for the Earth’s natural environments.
Students further their studies of Humanities through a variety of economic and social activities during ‘City Week’ and their studies of Australia’s history are further enhanced by a visit to the War Memorial to commemorate Anzac Day in April.
YEAR 10 HUMANITIES
In Year 10, students are required to choose two semester length courses from the following options:
Modern History: The ‘Age of Terror’
History is not simply about dates and facts. Rather it is about new ways to interpret and understand the past. History explores the origins of institutions and ideas that continue to shape our lives. In so doing, it tells us where we came from, who we are and gives us insight into the future. Modern History, ‘The Age of Terror’, explores the rise of terrorism in the world today. The course takes students back through history in search of clues to explain modern conflicts; the political, the religious and the economic. Students are encouraged to try to understand the big ideas: what drives people to commit acts of terror, what the consequences are, what the alternatives approaches are and have been, and what these can mean for future generations.
Modern History: The ‘Swinging Sixties’
The ‘Swinging Sixties’ was a revolutionary decade that changed the social, political, cultural and ideological landscape of the world. Students examine this time period critically, paying particular attention to key events, figures, ideologies and movements including the Cold War and its hotspots in Vietnam, Korea and Cuba, the quest for civil rights seen in the African American Civil Rights Movement as well the rise of feminism and gender equality movements.
Furthermore, students scrutinize growing political and cultural trends including hippie counterculture that defied the stringent, conservative social norms of the 1950s and established a revised status quo.
Students develop skills in constructing a substantiated argument, which assists them in writing more effective and cogent essays. Moreover, they participate in an inquiry-based learning task that allows them to become specialists in an area of the ‘Swinging Sixties’ they are most interested in. Finally, they are exposed to a range of primary and secondary documents which they evaluate and analyse for usefulness in contributing to our fixation and understanding of this fascinating era in 2014.
In Year 10 Geography students describe global patterns of development from a range of perspectives and identify and describe the factors that cause these patterns. In this course issues relating to human impact on the natural environment, the potential for innovative change in how we use raw resources is explored and future-proofing of our farming practices is reviewed. They analyse development issues and formulate and evaluate comprehensive policies, including those for sustainable use and management of resources, to alter development patterns at a range of scales. They use evidence based on their inquiries and geographical language and concepts. They accurately interpret information on different types of maps and photographs at a range of scales, and use map evidence to support explanations, draw inferences and predict associated outcomes. They collect and collate information gathered from fieldwork observations and present their findings observing geographical presentation conventions.
Philosophy is like gymnastics for the mind, and students are introduced to this challenging discipline through a semester-length elective. The course explores such concepts as the nature of reality, the origins of morality, and some of the major schools of normative ethics. Philosophy encourages students to think about problems and issues in a new way, while at the same time refining their writing and reasoning skills. Students will also be exposed to some of the philosophical terms that underpin many different academic disciplines. They will also be asked to apply their newfound skills to a variety of challenging ethical issues such as cloning and human rights.
The study of law at year 10 introduces students to the notion of civic responsibility. Through engagement with local, state, national and global issues and the laws that exist to protect rights and encourage responsibility, students develop a sense of their place in manifesting positive change. Students will develop strong research and analysis skills and present their views and understanding of the law and its relevance to youth in a variety of media. Students will also visit the Latrobe Valley Magistrates Court and see the law in action. They will have an opportunity to meet and ask questions of the Regional Magistrate and Coroner, Lawyers, the Police Prosecutor and members of the court network and services program.
In this course students are involved in studies related to economics, business management, personal budgeting and ethical consumption. The course considers how markets, government policies, enterprise and innovation affect the economy, society and environment in terms of employment, economic growth, the use of resources, exports and imports, and ecological sustainability.
Students explore how the community defines, classifies and uses resources. They learn about the processes of consumption, production and distribution in meeting needs and wants, and the role of consumers, workers and producers in the economy. They consider factors affecting their spending and why it is important to be an informed consumer when making spending decisions. They investigate the importance of personal money management and the role of banking, budgeting and saving.
VCE Modern History
History gives students a greater understanding of the world we live in and the ideological forces that have shaped it. Through studying the past, we can better understand how to approach the future. By understanding the successes and failures of past generations, we can make more informed decisions about the future, and formulate better solutions to the challenges that lie ahead. The focus in Stage 1 & 2 Modern History is on the 20th Century – a time when the great advances of technology and human discovery lifted millions out of poverty yet at the same time condemned millions more to the most horrific conflicts we have ever seen. Stage 1 focuses on the World Wars and the social and political forces that led to the rise of political extremism. Stage 2 looks at the ‘Cold War’ and the implications of the nuclear arms race, as well as the rise and fall of the Soviet Empire. Students will learn many of the core skills inherent to historians, as well as developing their own formal writing and research skills.
VCE History of Revolutions
Revolutions are the great disjuncture of modern times and mark deliberate attempts at new directions. They share the common aim of breaking with the past by destroying the regimes and societies that engender them and embarking on a program of political and social transformation. As processes of dramatically accelerated social change, revolutions have a profound impact on the country in which they occur, as well as important international repercussions. Because revolutions involve destruction and construction, dispossession and liberation, they polarise society and unleash civil war and counter-revolution, making the survival and consolidation of the revolution the principal concern of the revolutionary state. In defence of the revolution, under attack from within and without, revolutionary governments often deploy armed force and institute policies of terror and repression. The process of revolution concludes when a point of stability has been reached and a viable revolutionary settlement made.
The focus of our study of the History of Revolutions centres on both the Russian and Chinese Revolutions. All revolutions have certain key elements in common. They all:
- involve some form of change
- involve relatively sudden or abrupt happenings or accelerations of previously existing rates of change
- have significant and far-reaching effects
It is these elements which form the foundation of our study along with an examination of the characteristics of revolution including violence and terror, leadership, ideology, organisation and international influence. Class work will focus on the interpretation of primary and secondary sources and the use of videos forms an integral part of course.
Philosophy is a challenging, academically rigorous course that is a must for all students with serious academic ambitions. Even students who plan careers in the Sciences or Engineering fields will benefit from the creative-thinking and problem solving skills that Philosophy fosters.
Students who decide to pursue this subject at VCE level will study some of the most fascinating and complex topics in modern philosophy. In Unit 1, students study the topics of Free Will, Mind & Body, Epistemology and the Philosophy of Time. In Unit 2, students will make an in-depth study of meta-ethics, normative ethics and applied ethics, as well as turning their attention to the fields of Aesthetics, Political Philosophy and Religion. In Unit 3, students will study the Philosophy of Mind in greater depth as well as the concepts of ‘self’ and ‘identity’ by reading the original texts from key thinkers in each field. In Unit 4, students will examine what both Western and Eastern Philosophy can teach us about leading a good life.
Not only are many of these topics fascinating to young adults, but they help develop more concise written and verbal reasoning skills, and encourage students to be more disciplined in constructing their own arguments or articulating their ideas – such skills will serve them well in any occupation.
VCE Legal Studies
Legal Studies is an ideal subject for students considering studying law at university. Students with Law degrees these days have a distinct advantage and are in high demand by employers. These students may opt to pursue a career as a barrister in a legal firm. Employers also seek those with Law Degrees in many fields, including Commerce, Business, Finance, Accounting and Economics. This is due to the ability of legal students to think clearly, solve problems, negotiate deals and seek solutions to a wide range of challenges confronting organisations and industries today.
At Units 1 and 2, the course focuses on how laws are made, the role of the criminal and civil law and the importance of human rights in a global context. Students investigate, discuss and debate many controversial issues confronting law makers, such as euthanasia and human cloning. At Units 3 and 4, the course explores the effectiveness of the legal system and the context to which its structures achieve justice. It focuses on the role of parliament, the courts, our constitution and criminal and civil procedures. During the course of their studies students develop a well-rounded view of the legal system through authentic learning experiences, including visits to the Melbourne courts, Victorian Parliament and one of Victoria’s prisons. Students also have the opportunity to partake in the inter school mooting competition conducted by Bond University.
Economics underpins every decision made by all consumers, businesses and governments. Through a study in Economics, students are able to explain what is happening with current events in inflation, interest rates, inflation rates and unemployment. By investigating different market systems, students can analyse the significance of supply and demand in effecting prices, and how fiscal and monetary policy can improve the current economic conditions of different countries. Students are able to show why there is a gap between the rich and poor and what can be done to improve this situation.
Students have the ability to demonstrate their knowledge through the completion of the Australian Economics and Business Studies Competition run through the University of New South Wales, as well as the participation in a number of school-based activities.
As the language of business, VCE Accounting equips students with a valuable skill set. Accountants are strategic advisors who must demonstrate an understanding of core issues and processes in the integral role of business decision making. VCE Accounting equips students with the understanding of the financial structures of an organisation. Students develop skills in recording, reporting, analysing and interpreting financial data and information which can then be communicated to internal and external users of the information. These skills play an integral role in the successful operation and management of a business.
Students learn about the preparation and presentation of financial statements as governed by Australian Accounting Standards and guided by the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements (AASB Framework). Students will study both theoretical and practical aspects accounting through the collection financial data and recording and reporting of financial information using both manual systems and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).
VCE Business Management
Business Management provides students with relevant, real life experiences which can be transferred to their professional lives. During units 1 & 2, students gain an understanding of small businesses, the relevant decision making that is necessary to run a business, business communication techniques and public relations. Students also investigate the importance of being socially responsible and ethical.
In order to gain a thorough understanding of business, students develop their own business and complete all aspects including market research, business plans, marketing and evaluation. This is showcased during the Nossal Market Day where students have the opportunity to sell their product/service and all profit raised is donated to charity.
In Units 3 and 4 students develop an understanding of the complexity and challenge of managing large-scale organisations and have the opportunity to compare theoretical perspectives with practical applications. Students will also learn about the key aspects of strategies used to most effectively manage human resources. To conclude their studies, students will analyse the management of change. Students learn about key change management processes and strategies and are provided with the opportunity to apply these to a contemporary issue of significance.
Many students at Nossal already speak one or more Languages other than English at home, or study a language outside school. We appreciate and celebrate our students’ amazing linguistic skills.
There are many advantages of learning a second (or third, or fourth) language, including:
- Gaining an insight into other cultures;
- Learning more about yourself and your own culture;
- Improving your understanding of English and its role in the global community ;
- Increasing your brain’s ‘plasticity’ and improving your problem-solving and communication skills;
- Keeping your brain healthy and strong (bilingualism has even been linked to delayed onset of dementia!);
- Giving you the chance to travel, live and work overseas;
- Meeting new people and making new friends;
- Expanding and enhancing your study and career prospects.
Even for students who speak multiple languages outside school, there are benefits in learning a foreign language in a formal academic setting. Japanese and French at Nossal are taught in a structured, rigorous way. Language study includes both communicative, task-based learning but also formal grammar study, which is particularly beneficial for the development of students’ literacy and numeracy skills.
The study of a Language other than English is also encouraged by the Government, through incentives at the VCE level.
There is a new tagged Certificate of Education at Year 12, the Victorian Baccalaureate. It is awarded to high-achieving students, based on their ATAR, who study a range of subjects, including at least one language other than English.
Languages are compulsory at Year 9 at Nossal, and optional but strongly encouraged in Year 10. Both French and Japanese can be continued through to Year 12 regardless of whether a student begins as a Beginner or Intermediate student at Nossal.
Students who choose to study Japanese in Year 9 study at either an Intermediate or Beginner level depending on their previous studies.
Students study a range of topics, including an exploration of Japanese culture, and learn the Japanese writing systems. Students develop a variety of communication skills through active participation in the classroom, through in-school visits and outside school excursions and activities using and experiencing Japanese.
Year 10 students continue to develop their communication skills in Japanese and participate in activities that aim to strengthen their understanding and ability to communicate in, and explore, both the language and culture of Japan.
As part of their learning and assessment, our students have the opportunity to practise general conversation with not only the Japanese speaking staff at Nossal, but with the Assistant Japanese Language Teacher and an experienced VCE oral assessor. Students participate in a wide range of language and cultural based activities.
Classes also operate at VCE level following the VCAA curriculum prescribed in the VCE Japanese as a Second Language Study Design, where a more intensive study of the Japanese language is offered, using prescribed themes and topics. There are three themes:
- The Individual;
- The Japanese-speaking communities; and
- The Changing world.
VCE Japanese introduces even more sophisticated grammar and vocabulary and focuses on real-life topics and issues such as the changing world of work; the environment; issues in Japanese society and youth culture.
The four key skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking are assessed, and end-of-semester oral and written exams prepare students for their final VCE 3 and 4 exams.
The Year 9 French course concentrates on personal-world topics related to students’ lives such as self, family, daily activities, hobbies and shopping.
There are two streams: Intermediate (for students who have completed Year 7 and 8 French, or equivalent) and Beginners (for students who have no, or minimal, previous experience with French).
Year 10 French consolidates and expands on the skills covered in Year 9 and introduces more complex vocabulary, grammar, text types and topics in preparation for VCE. Units include health, holidays and travel, and media and communications.
Classes also operate at VCE level following the VCAA curriculum prescribed in the VCE French as a Second Language Study Design, where a more intensive study of the Japanese language is offered, using prescribed themes and topics. There are three themes:
- The Individual;
- The Japanese-speaking communities; and
- The Changing world.
VCE French introduces even more sophisticated grammar and vocabulary and focuses on real-life topics and issues such as the world of work; the environment; migration; and science and technology. The four key skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking are assessed, and end-of-semester oral and written exams prepare students for their final Year VCE 3 and 4 exams.
VICTORIAN SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES
Students may be able to undertake correspondence language studies in other languages through the VSL (Victorian School of Languages) at Nossal. Nossal provides a dedicated staff member to assist in the facilitation of the VSL programs.
The Year 9 policy for study of a language other than French or Japanese is as follows:
In Year 9, students have an active choice of studying either Japanese or French as part of their academic studies. Yet, if a Year 9 student has enrolled externally of Nossal, and is attending a VSL or Community Saturday/Sunday school, then they are still required to attend either their normal Nossal Japanese or French language classes. The only exception to this is rule is when a Year 9 student does not have any face-to-face teaching time on either Saturday or Sundays (due to distance), and therefore physically needs study periods to complete their work at Nossal.
At Nossal, we recognize the value and cognitive benefits of acquiring languages, and encourage students to continue the study of languages through Years 10, 11 and 12.
The contact person for study of a language other than French or Japanese at the Victorian School of Languages or through distance education, is Mr. Rohan Bramley.
INTERNATIONAL STUDY TOURS, HOSTING and EXCHANGE
Nossal international study tours meet the Australian Curriculum guidelines for both Languages and the cross-curriculum priorities, including “Sustainability” and “Engagement with Asia”. Please see the section on Camps and Tours for more information about these. A study tour for Japanese runs biannually every even year for students studying year 10, 11 or 12. Similarly, for French biannually in odd years.
LANGUAGES ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES
Both languages, together and separately, offer a range of activities and competitions to complement students’ regular, in-class language learning. A highlight of the year is Languages Diversity Day, where all Year 9 and all Year 10-12 students studying French or Japanese participate in a range of intensive linguistic and cultural activities across the course of a day. This year, 2016, the whole school will participate from lunchtime through to the end of the day, with added multicultural and multilinguistic activities and a food fair. The day will end with an assembly celebrating Languages Diversity at Nossal High School.
Other language enrichment activities are available throughout the year. Students should keep an eye on NEO for announcements of events or extension programs as they come up.
There are a number of student-run clubs related to the Languages including the French conversation club and the Japanese youth culture and anime club. Students of VSL have the opportunity to create study groups and club activities related to their study.
Nossal language students can participate in a range of local, state, national and international language competitions, both to gain perspective on their progress and also to build their skills in a range of exam-style situations.
Students of VSL, Japanese and French can participate in the Language Perfect World Championships. All students are subscribed to the popular vocabulary and grammar learning site, and the World Championships – as well as other competitions through Language Perfect – pit students against students around the world. The competition rewards the consolidated learning of new vocabulary, expressions and structures, encouraging students to extend their vocabulary and grammar, and challenge each other to learn more and at a faster rate.
Intermediate students at Year 9 and year 10 through 12 students also participate in the ACER Australian Language Certificates, which test students listening and reading comprehension skills against students throughout Australia and Asia.
Students in Japanese have the option to participate in a number of competitions throughout the year. These are advertised on NEO and will assist students to develop a range of linguistic and creative communicative skills. These competitions include, among many others, the Japanese speech, calligraphy, and video competitions.
Students in Years 11 and 12 participate in the Alliance Francaise Berthe Mouchette competition, completing a written test and taking part in an oral interview, which are excellent preparation for the final Year 12 exams.
EXCURSIONS AND INCURSIONS
Each year students of Japanese participate in at least one external activity involving the study of Japanese language and culture. Some activities include:
A guided through a tour around Melbourne’s Japanese Food outlets; A visit to the Consulate participating in a one hour talk on Life in Modern Japan and using Japanese language as a Global citizen; A Japanese lunch at a Japanese restaurant; A Tour of the Japanese art and artefacts at the National Gallery of Victoria; The Japanese VCE morning and the Year 10 Why Study a LOTE morning.
Students may also have the opportunity to see a new release Japanese film at the ACMI at Federation Square during the Japanese Film Festival. Most films offered deal with youth and issues of growing up in Japan. Both in terms of the lifestyle and culture of students their age and of a critical time in Japanese history, these films will engage and entertain students in a culturally and linguistically relevant way.
Year 12 students attend the Year 12 morning in preparation for the final examination.
Year 9 and 10 students have opportunities to go on a ‘film and food’ excursion. Exploring the French culture and food of Melbourne
VCE students also have an excursion to the Alliance Française in St Kilda where they enjoy a French breakfast or lunch, and take part in an intensive workshop focusing on a theme such as Identity, Immigration, the French Revolution and so on.
VCE students can also attend the Year 12 French morning, run by the Association of French Teachers of Victoria, to complete practice exam questions, see a mock oral and get tips from a range of experienced French examiners.
Nossal Language staff strongly encourage the participation of Language Assistants within our classrooms. This may be in the form of a formal, funded Language Assistant, or volunteers.
If you are a Japanese, French or other language speaker and are interested in working with our students in any capacity, please contact reception and ask to speak to the Languages Domain leader (for French and Japanese) or the VSL Coordinator (for any other language) – we would love to hear from you!
At Nossal in Year 9, we follow the new Australian Curriculum in Mathematics which provides students with mathematical skills and knowledge in Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, Statistics and Probability. We develop the numeracy capabilities that assist students in everyday life and prepare them for further study.
Mathematics at Nossal is taught in innovative and fun ways. In order to cater for individual learning, each lesson begins with an entry question designed to ascertain student’s needs. Depending on how a student performs in this question, they will then be allocated a task which addresses their need.
A student who experiences some form of difficulty will attend a “workshop”, an intensive session designed to improve the skills in that area.
A student who has experienced success will then attempt questions either at the Year 9 or Year 10 level, depending on their level of competence in the topic.
In this way students are able to learn at their own pace. Formative assessment is achieved for with the use of the entry question and a growth mindset is encouraged as students are aware that they are not stuck in the low group and understand that there is an expectation of improvement.
|Year 9 Semester 1
|Year 9 Semester 2
||Year 10 Semester 2
Students are provided with a variety of learning tools so they are able to develop mathematical skills, problem solving and analysis.
In Year 9 students use scientific calculators, whilst in Year 10 students are expected to use a CAS calculator. The chosen CAS calculator is the Casio Classpad.
Once students have completed Intermediate Mathematics they are well prepared to undertake a variety of VCE Mathematics subjects.
General Maths Unit 1 & 2
General Maths prepares students who intend on taking Further Mathematics. The units of work include Data Analysis and Simulation, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Linear Graphs and Matrices.
Students who study General Maths are able to define and explain key concepts in relation to the topics covered and apply a range of mathematical routines and procedures.
Students use computer algebra system (CAS) technology to support and develop the learning of mathematics.
Mathematical Methods Unit 1 & 2
Mathematical Methods (CAS) Units 1 and 2 are designed as preparation for Mathematical Methods (CAS) Units 3 and 4. The topics covered in Maths Methods Units 1 and 2 are: Functions including Linear, Quadratic, Exponential, Logarithmic and Circular, Rates of Change, Calculus and Probability. Students are expected to be able to apply techniques, routines and processes involving rational and real arithmetic, algebraic manipulation, equation solving, graph sketching, differentiation and integration with and without the use of technology, as applicable.
Students use computer algebra system (CAS) technology to produce results and carry out analysis in situations requiring problem-solving and investigative techniques.
Specialist Maths 1 & 2
Specialist Maths 1 & 2 prepares students who intend on taking Specialist Mathematics units 3 & 4. The units of work include: Rational Number Systems, Complex Numbers, Non-linear Relations, Kinematics, Vectors and Trigonometric Ratios.
Students are able to apply mathematical processes in non-routine contexts and analyse and discuss these applications of mathematics.
Students are assessed in a variety of ways including assignments, tests, projects, short written responses and problem solving tasks.
Further Mathematics Units 3 & 4
Further Mathematics provides a general preparation for employment or further study, in particular, where data analysis is important. The assumed knowledge and skills for Further Mathematics are drawn from General Mathematics (Further).
Topics include a core area of study ‘Data Analysis’ and three modules: Geometry and Trigonometry, Graphs and Relations, and Matrices and Applications.
Students learn to select and use technology to develop mathematical ideas, produce results and carry out analysis in situation requiring modelling techniques.
Mathematical Methods Unit 3 & 4
Maths Methods provides a background for further study in areas such as science, humanities, economics or medicine. The units of work covered in Maths Methods include: Functions and Graphs, Algebra, Calculus and Probability.
The first area of study covers the behaviour of functions, including key features of graphs, domain and range and asymptotic behaviour. The area of Algebra covers composite functions, inverse functions and solutions of equations. The study of calculus covers limits, differentiation, anti-differentiation and integration. The last area of study includes the study of discrete and continuous random variables, probability density functions and calculation and interpretation of central measures and measure of spread.
Specialist Mathematics is taken in conjunction with Mathematical Methods Units 3 & 4. The areas of study extend and develop material from Mathematical Methods and are intended for those with strong interests in mathematics and those who wish to further study mathematics and related disciplines.
The topics covered include: functions relations and their graphs, complex numbers, circular functions, differential and integral calculus, differential equations, vectors, vector calculus, kinematics and mechanics.
Students are required to use a CAS calculator to determine the domain and range requirements of graphs, role of parameters in specifying general forms of symbolic expressions and appropriate use of technology in a variety of mathematical contexts.
Mathematics Enrichment and Enhancement
The Mathematics department also run a number of programs and activities for students who have special interest or ability in Maths. These includes:
- Maths Whiz (semester long program in Year 9)
- The Australian Informatics Competition (test for computer programing potential)
- The University of Melbourne School Mathematics Competition
- Mathematics Challenge For Young Australian – Challenge Stage (3 week program)
- Mathematics Challenge For Young Australian – Enrichment Stage (6 month program)
- The Australian Mathematics Competition
- The UNSW ICAS Maths Test
- The Intermediate Mathematical Olympiad
- The Australian Mathematical Olympiad
Cooperative Adult Learning Environment – Maths Peer Coaching Program
At Nossal, we practice and promote cooperative learning in an adult environment. Students are encouraged to discuss and help each other in their educational journey. There is a group of students who have come together to formalise this.
This quite large group of students have volunteered to be in the Maths Peer Coaching Program. This is one of the very best things about being a part of the Nossal community. It is a source of immense pride to see so many students committed to the notion of lending a hand when there is no apparent reward.
These students are then divided up into groups and a roster is set up to offer tuition to fellow students. The students requiring help then sign up for sessions, which are held on most lunchtimes.
For more information about Mathematics at Nossal High School, contact Mr Ian Pegram (Head of Maths) via email: Ian.Pegram@nossalhs.vic.edu.au
Middle School PE and Health
Students in Year 9 are exposed to a variety of sports and activities over the course of the year in practical classes including minor games, fitness testing, traditional sports and fitness and recreation activities. Sessions are run in mixed gender and single gender. In the latter stages of the year there is a strong student voice with choice over the sport or fitness activity they wish to participate in. For all practical classes students are required to wear their Nossal PE uniforms.
Two classes a fortnight are conducted in the class room and are more theoretical in nature, although strong links to practical classes and real world experiences are encouraged. Students explore topics including; the components of fitness, systems of the body (muscular and skeletal), personal identity and harm minimisation, with a focus on drug awareness and sexual health.
In Year 9 students also have the opportunity to participate in the elective subject ‘Sports around the World’ a practical subject which introduces students to a wide variety of non-traditional sports from around the globe.
In Year 10, PE and Health are combined for a course of one semester duration. Lifelong fitness is promoted with students developing practical skills in a variety of fitness and recreation activities. Students are also given the opportunity to develop leadership, interpersonal skills and organisation by leading a peer teaching session in a sport or fitness activity of their choice.
Two classes a fortnight are conducted in the class room. Students explore topics including; first aid, mental health, sexual education, nutrition and a lifelong fitness unit.
In Year 10 students have the opportunity to participate in the elective subject ‘Team Sports’ a practical subject where students partake in a round robin competition and undertake a variety of roles including playing, coaching and officiating.
VCE Physical Education
VCE Physical Education examines how the world’s elite athletes perform to such a standard. What physical and psychological factors influence their sporting performance? What can be done in the pursuit for faster, higher, stronger? What drives people to exercise? What barriers to movement do Australians face and how can they be overcome?
VCE PE explores the biological, physiological, psychological, social and cultural influences on sport performance and participation in physical activity.
In year 11 Nossal students visit Phillip Island for a 3 day surf camp applying their understanding of the biomechanical, the energy systems that enable movement and sport coaching principles in a practical setting. The physical, social and mental health benefits of exercise are also examined including the current levels of physical inactivity in Australia and the risk factors associated with this.
In Unit 3 and 4 our students visit Exercise Research Australia and are given the opportunity to complete and observe first-hand a range of elite athlete fitness tests. Nossal students are also introduced to the world of elite sport spending the day at the Melbourne Storm training facility at AAMI stadium and observe a Storm training session. Students also participate in a training program making use of the Nossal gymnasium and fitness centre.
Nossal offers VCE PE Units 1-4.
VCE Health and Human Development
Health and Human Development helps young people to understand themselves, how the human body develops, the science behind achieving optimal health throughout the lifespan and the determinants that shape life in Australia and around the globe.
In Units 1 and 2 Nossal students visit an Early Learning Centre providing the opportunity to apply their understanding of childhood development in a practical context. Students also participate in the Virtual Baby program giving insight to life as a parent and infancy.
Year 12 studies take on a global perspective. The health and development of Australia is compared to other nations, health promotion strategies and systems used by governments around the world to combat literacy, poverty, hunger, malaria and HIV/Aids are assessed for their impact on human development and sustainability.
Nossal offers VCE HHD Units 1-4.
Year 9 Science
Year 9 Science is the first science that students will encounter at Nossal High School. For 2016, the course consists of elements of Biology, Chemistry and Physics so that they can experience each of these main fields. The Year 9 Science Units include: Atomic Science (where students learn about atomic structure, ionic bonding and nuclear radiation); Body Disharmony (where students learn about their endocrine and nervous systems and what can go wrong with them); a unit on Electricity (where students consider the behaviour of electric charges when they are at rest, and when they are moving in various circuits), and Chemistry (where students will learn how to write and balance chemical equations, the nature of salts, solubility and acids and bases). Students also complete a short unit on astronomy. The year will conclude with a unit on adaptations of organisms. Students will visit Healesville sanctuary in October and undertake fieldwork as part of a guided inquiry approach to science. They will consider the classification of organisms, how specific examples of Australian organisms have evolved over time, the influences of continental drift and human activity on ecosystems and conservation strategies.
Environmental Science is offered as an elective subject in Year 9. It is a single semester unit. This subject covers a unit of work on Renewable Energy where the students investigate solar and wind energy through practical work, and also discuss issues around Renewable Energy in society. The other unit in Environmental Science involves students performing an audit of biodiversity around the grounds of Nossal High School.
Biology is the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution and taxonomy. Foundation Biology is a pre-VCE course offered to Year 10 students. A semester-long course, Foundation Biology develops key skills necessary to perform well at VCE. Students study biochemistry and the building blocks of life – cells. They investigate the basis of genetic information and how it is used and the mechanisms of evolution.
Chemistry is about explaining the properties and interactions of all substances that make up matter. It is about explaining and predicting reactions that will occur when two substances come into contact, whether it is the formation of molecules out in space to the complex biological interactions that occur in the human body. Chemistry is used to explain natural phenomena at a molecular level, as well as to create new materials such as medicines and polymers.
Foundation Chemistry (Year 10) is a semester long subject and is divided into two areas of study of roughly equal length. Each area of study has one major assignment.
Foundation Physics is a semester long introduction to the topics of Motion, Newtonian Mechanics and Energy Transformations. Students are encouraged to move from observations made during student designed experiments to the theoretical construction of models. In addition, students spend time reflecting on the breadth of topics embraced by the discipline of Physics. A focus on the history of early discoveries and the development of scientific methodology and the philosophy of science pervades this unit of work.
This subject has been designed for Year 10 students who would like to do all three sciences within one year. Intensive Science covers the syllabi of Foundation Biology, Foundation Chemistry and Foundation Physics but the content is covered more quickly. This subject is for high-achieving science students and entry is based on academic achievement in Year 9 Science and teacher recommendation.
In VCE Biology, students undertake studies relating to a number of aspects of living things. We look at the most basic unit of life – a cell, and observe how cells make up specialised tissue and organ systems. We observe how organ systems assist organisms to survive in a range of Australian climates and study how organisms interact with each other and with their environment. We investigate and analyse the biochemistry of life and the role of signaling molecules in both homeostasis and immunity. We explore how genetics determines heredity, how evolution has led to the formation of the living world around us, and we examine the use of genetic technologies.
VCE Chemistry is made up of four units. Year 11 Chemistry examines topics including the Periodic Table, materials, water and the atmosphere. During the first year of VCE Chemistry students learn the basic theory and techniques. Year 12 Chemistry is about applying the skills and techniques gained during Units 1 & 2 to real world applications. Units 3 & 4 examine topics such as chemical analysis, organic chemical pathways, industrial chemistry and the use and supply of energy. The chemistry undertaken in this study is representative of the discipline and the major ideas of chemistry.
Physics is a branch of science which deals with the study of the universe and all it contains. It has many points of focus, ranging from the smallest of subatomic particles to the shape and size of the universe (or perhaps, multiverse). The VCE physics course begins with the study of Thermodynamics, and ends with a study of relationship between matter and energy that brings together many of the concepts encountered by students across the course of the four VCE units.
The topics covered by the VCE Physics course include the study of Thermodynamics; Electricity; Sound; Motion and Mechanics, Electromagnetism including the nature of electricity, the generation of electric power, circuit theory and electronics, and the relationship between electric and magnetic forces; Astrophysics;; and the Interactions between Light and Matter. Throughout the course there is an emphasis on the experimental nature of the discipline, and a reflection on the historical context of various discoveries to help delineate the scientific method.
Units 1 & 2: Psychology is the systematic study of thoughts, feelings and behaviours. As a Science, psychology aims to describe, explain and predict behaviour. Students investigate the scope of psychology, its scientific disciplines and fields of application. They explore visual perception, visual illusions and development over a lifespan. Students develop an understanding of what influences the formation of attitudes of individuals and the behaviour of groups and how this can lead to aggression. They also look at how differences in individuals can be ascribed to differences in intelligence and personality.
Units 3 & 4: Students study the relationship between the brain and mind through examining the basis of consciousness, behaviour, cognition and memory. Students investigate the ways in which information is processed, stored and utilised. This enables them to apply different theories of memory and forgetting to their everyday learning experiences. Students consider different concepts of normality, and learn to differentiate between normal responses such as stress to external stimuli and mental disorders. Students explore the causes of mental illness, avenues of assistance and factors that promote mental wellbeing.
Throughout all the units of Psychology students analyse research methodologies and consider the ethical issues associated with the conduct of research and the use of findings. They apply appropriate research methods when undertaking their own investigations.
This semester length year nine study course offers a “fun” introduction to the study of Architecture. We look at both the process and the product of designing and constructing buildings throughout history.
We ask questions like:
- What does an architect actually do?
- Is there a future for buildings as we know them?
Architecture also includes the pragmatic elements of design, such as planning, cost and construction. We undertake sketching of a variety of buildings and use our school as a starting point to understand the building process, floor plans, design options, site plans and ecologically sustainable building strategies.
The students work as individuals and use a sketch book to draw a variety of structures. In small teams they use model building materials, to construct selected structures.
This course is designed to challenge students understanding of architecture, buildings and there evolution.
Nossal High School offers a unique multicultural cooking program that caters for all students in Year 9. Students learn the foundation of basic methods of cookery, and their skills are fostered and developed, teaching them lifelong skills that they will utilise in the future.
The Year 9 program focuses on practical and skill areas, giving students multiple cooking sessions to develop basic skills. Students learn kitchen and cleaning procedures, knife, measuring, and cooking skills.
Students are challenged with multicultural recipes that cover a broad range of methods of cookery. Throughout this class students focus on the five food groups and food safety. This gives students the required knowledge needed for food storage and preparation within the home.
The Year 10 program gives students an in depth knowledge of the ‘wonderful world of Food Technology’. Throughout this semester students cover a broad range of topics that include: food safety, multicultural and indigenous foods, stages of the lifespan and nutrition, packaging and labelling. Students are given challenging design briefs, and problem solving techniques such as investigate, design, produce and evaluate. The skills the students learn from this semester length course will strengthen their knowledge in preparation for VCE Food Technology.
VCE Year 11 Food
VCE Food Technology Units 1 & 2 focuses on several topics related to Food Technology. These topics include: Food safety, the origin and structure of the six main ingredients, tools for the 21st century, food and society, designing meals. This course will provide students with extensive cooking and skill base and give them the confidence needed to design and develop menus and produce them to a high standard. Students will participate in several practical productions that relate to the above topics, and will have the opportunity to master new skills and produce challenging recipes beyond their expected capabilities. This is a fantastic unit that incorporates deep learning in a very enjoyable environment.
Year 9 Robotics
Students learn about basic electronic components and simple circuits. They learn how to assemble a PCB by reading the circuits. Students then learn to program programmable micro controllers using computers. During the latter part of the semester the students will experience the same concept of programmable devices using LEGO Mindstorm. They become creative thinker as they can and develop any kind of robot and test it. This subject is the pathway to VCE Systems Engineering.
Year 9 Information Technology
This is a semester long subject. Year 9 IT includes the creation of webpage using HTML and CSS in the first part of the semester. During the second part of the semester the students make a computer game using Adobe Flash Professional.
Year 10 Information Technology
Year 10 IT includes the investigation of VB.NET ad a programming language and using this programming language to solve information problems. Microsoft’s Excel Spreadsheet software is also covered in preparation for those students who wish to take the pathway to VCE software development or VCE IT applications.
Year 10 Electronics
Electronics is a branch of technology that deals with the analysis, design, construction and evaluation of electromechanical devices (Robots). In year 10 the students will Learn to create programmable circuits using PicAXE programmable microcontroller that they will use later to make a remote controlled vehicle using Tamiya gearboxes and kits. This subject is s pathway to VCE Systems Engineering.
Information Technology Units 1 & 2
Unit 1 focuses on how individuals and organisations use, and can be effected by, information and communications technology (ICT) in their daily lives. Students acquire and apply a range of knowledge and skills to manipulate different data types such as numeric, text, sound and images (still and moving) to create solutions that can be used to persuade, educate, inform and entertain. Students also explore how their lives are affected by ICT and consider strategies for managing how ICT is applied. This unit includes an examination of how networked information systems allow data to be exchanged locally and within a global environment and explore how mobile devices, such as phones, are used within these networks.
Unit 2 focuses on how individuals and organisations use ICT to meet a range of purposes. Students apply a range of knowledge and skills to create solutions, including those that have been produced using a programming or scripting language, to meet users’ needs. In this unit, students apply all stages of the problem- solving methodology when creating solutions.
Information Technology (Software Development) Units 3 & 4
In Unit 3 students focus on programming as a strategy for solving problems for specific users in a networked environment. Students develop knowledge and skills in the use of a programming language. The programming language selected will be studied for both Units 3 & 4. Area of study 1 focuses on the analysis stage of the problem-solving methodology, which involves students developing and applying knowledge and skills in determining the requirements of solutions, identifying relevant factors that should be taken into account when designing the solutions, and in scoping the solutions. In area of study 2 students engage in designing the detailed specifications of how solutions will be developed and undertake the development stage by using the selected programming language to create planned solutions. In Unit 4 students focus on how the information needs of individuals, organisations and society are and can be met through the creation of purpose-designed solutions in a networked environment. Students continue to study the programming language selected in Unit 3.
Mechatronics (Systems Engineering) Units 1 & 2
In this unit, students are introduced to the Systems Engineering Process. They are introduced to the fundamental mechanical engineering principles, including recognition of mechanical subsystems and devices, their motions, the elementary applied physics, and the related mathematical calculations that can be applied to define and explain the physical characteristics of these systems.
Students study fundamental electro technology principles including applied electrical theory, representation of electronic components and devices, elementary applied physics in electrical circuits, and mathematical calculations that can be applied to define and explain electrical characteristics of circuits. The unit offers opportunities for students to apply their knowledge in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of an operational system.
System Engineering Units 3 & 4 (offered in 2015)
Students commence work on the design, planning and construction of one substantial controlled integrated system. This project has a strong emphasis on designing, manufacturing, testing and innovation. Students manage the project throughout the Systems Engineering Process, taking into consideration the factors that will influence the design, planning, production and use of their integrated system.
Students use their investigations, design and planning to continue the fabrication of their mechanical-electro technology integrated and controlled system using the Systems Engineering Process. They use project and risk management methods through the construction of the system and use a range of materials, tools, equipment and components. In the final stages of the Systems Engineering Process students test, diagnose and analyse the performance of the system. They evaluate their processes and the system.
Nossal High School Music & Dance Programs
Year 9 Dance
Dance students in Year 9 will learn skills and techniques to communicate ideas using movement in a variety of selected dance styles. They will learn the process of dance choreography and traditions to enhance aesthetic dance works. The students will also document and research dance styles from a range of social, historical and cultural contexts e.g Jazz, Hip Hop, Social Dance, Zumba etc. Students will perform in small and large groups to communicate original and learnt dance works
Year 10 Dance
Dance will suit students who are interested in movement, aesthetics and anatomy. In Dance, students develop the physical skills, personal movement vocabulary and application of choreographic and analytical principles. Students create and perform their own dance works as well as studying the dance works of others through performance and analysis. Students are required to undertake a range of dance training to build physical skills and develop their ability to execute safely, a diverse range of expressive body actions. Students perform and choreograph group dance works using different dance-making processes through a variety of dance styles such as Ballet, Jazz, Hip-Hop, Contemporary and Cultural dance.
Year 9 Music
This semester length course in Year 9 will provide an introduction to various styles of music. This course will encourage students to develop their creativity, imagination, inventiveness and the cultivation of aesthetic considerations for music. Students will develop an understanding in the following areas:
- Musical elements
- Musical genres
- Music and technology
Year 10 Music
This semester length course in Year 10 is suitable for students who have completed ‘Exploring Music’ or who already have a developed understanding of musical concepts. This subject will prepare students to undertake VCE Music in Year 11 if they wish. Students will listen to, analyse and compare various musical works from different genres. Students will also learn how to compose their own music using the software ‘Garage Band’ and ‘Musescore’. Students will develop an understanding in the following areas:
- Music analysis
- Rehearsal techniques and performance
Units 1 – 4 are offered to Year 10, 11 and 12 students. To undertake this subject it is recommended that students have the equivalent of AMEB Grade 6 practical level and AMEB Grade 4 theory. VCE Unit 3/4 students have the option to complete the subject as a soloist or as a member of a group. The course covers the following areas of study:
- Music performance
- Performance technique
- Organisation of Sound
In Year 9 Theatre Studies the focus is on introducing students to the concepts of vocal and movement skills. Students work through a variety of drama workshops to give them the skills necessary to develop an end-of-semester group performance. Students also develop an awareness of a variety of theatrical conventions through watching a live professional theatre performance. Written components of the course include keeping a Drama Journal, writing a Performance Analysis and research of a theatre form.
For students doing Theatre Studies in Year 10 the focus is on creating meaningful theatre in response to a variety of stimuli. Students also continue to develop their vocal and movement skills and are also introduced to the performance tools of dramatic elements and theatrical conventions. Students will perform a solo performance and a group performance throughout the semester. Students will attend a live professional theatre performance which will form the basis of their written performance analysis. There is an end-of-semester performance that will allow student’s to showcase knowledge and understanding of Theatre Studies.
VCE Theatre Studies focuses on the creation and performance of characters, narratives and stories. Students draw on a range of content and use role and expressive skills to create, embody and present theatre. They analyse the development of their performances and explore the actor/audience relationship. Students develop an understanding of dramatic elements, stagecraft and theatrical conventions appropriate to performance styles from a range of cultural contexts. They view and analyse performances by professional practitioners.
Theatre Studies provides students with opportunities to explore the ways in which theatre represents social, political, and historical contexts, narratives and stories. Students develop an understanding of the language of theatre including terminology and expressions appropriate to the context of the theatre that students create, perform and analyse. Students develop an appreciation of theatre as an art form through participation, criticism and aesthetic understanding.
Year 9 Art
Visual Arts provides opportunities for students to enjoy the making and studying of art. It builds an understanding of the role of art in all forms of media, both in the contemporary and historical world, and encourages students to develop their ideas and interests in artworks. Students learn:
Year 9 Photography
This semester length course provides a basic introduction into digital photography.
The students will:
- Learn how to use a digital SLR camera.
- Study photographic composition rules
- Complete a series of photographic challenges.
- Analyse and interpret the photographic work of significant photographic artists.
- Use computer editing and manipulation techniques on their own images.
- Produce a visual diary displaying their photographs, photo analysis, photo appreciation and theory assignments.
Year 10 Multi Media
Students will produce creative digital images and videos. using a range of “industry standard” computer software programs: Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign and Movie Maker (Windows).They will also learn about photo and video appreciation and the rules of composition and page layout.
Year 10 Art
Students can learn to draw and develop their creative and artistic abilities in Art. Projects will cover collage, illustration and printing making. They will produce drawing from observation and from their imagination. Students will frame their work for the school Arts exhibition and critical analyse and reflect on the work of practicing artists from Australia and overseas.
Visual Communication and Design
Year 9 Visual Communication and Design
This semester length course provides a basic introduction to the skills required in VCE Study of Visual Communication Design. The students will:
- Experiment with one, two and three point perspective freehand drawing techniques, producing a series of illustrations that will be colour in using the Adobe Photoshop CS6.
- Learn about effective poster design and create a poster for an issue/cause within our community.
- Interpret information from a variety of sources and analyse the work of commissioned artists and designers.
- Understand the use of design elements and principles to improve any visual piece of information.
Year 10 Visual Communication
This semester length course in Year 10 continues to develop the students understanding of industrial design, environmental design and visual communication design. The students will:
- Use the design process correctly, interpret information from a wide variety of sources, develop, refine and analyse their own drawings and analyse the visual communication work of others.
- Explore and develop ideas using a range of materials and techniques
- Use the design elements and principles to improve the presentation of their work
- Creating a series of rendered illustrations to create the illusion of three dimensional form, space, depth and texture.
- Explore the client-designer relationship and produce final presentations which meet the needs of a given brief for particular audiences. This would culminate in the making of a package and poster, complete with all backup research and development presented in a folio.
VCE Visual Communication and Design
Unit 1: Introduction to visual communication design
This unit focuses on using visual language to communicate messages, ideas and concepts. This involves acquiring and applying design thinking skills as well as drawing skills to make messages, ideas and concepts visible and tangible. Students practise their ability to draw what they observe and they use visualisation drawing methods to explore their own ideas and concepts. Students develop an understanding of the importance of presentation drawings to clearly communicate their final visual communications.
Through experimentation and through exploration of the relationship between design elements and design principles, students develop an understanding of how design elements and principles affect the visual message and the way information and ideas are read and perceived. Students review the contextual background of visual communication through an investigation of design styles. This research introduces students to the broader context of the place and purpose of design. In this unit students are introduced to three stages of the design process: researching designers, generating ideas and applying design knowledge and drawing skills to develop concepts.
Unit 2: Communication in context. The main purpose of this unit is to enable students to develop and refine practical skills by generating images and developing them through freehand drawing, instrumental drawing and the use of information and communications technology. In the development of visual communications, this unit enables students to develop an awareness of how the design process facilitates exploration and experimentation and how information and ideas are communicated.
Unit 2: Applications of visual communication design
This unit focuses on the application of visual communication design knowledge, design thinking
skills and drawing methods to create visual communications to meet specific purposes in designated design fields. Students use presentation drawing methods that incorporate the use of technical drawing conventions to communicate information and ideas associated with the environmental or industrial fields of design. They investigate how typography and imagery are used in visual communication design. They apply design thinking skills when exploring ways in which images and type can be manipulated to communicate ideas and concepts in different ways in the communication design field. Students develop an understanding of the design process as a means of organising their thinking about approaches to solving design problems and presenting ideas. In response to a brief, students engage in the stages of research, generation of ideas and development of concepts to create visual communications.
Unit 3: Design thinking and practice
In this unit students gain an understanding of the process designers employ to structure their thinking and communicate ideas with clients, target audiences, other designers and specialists. Through practical investigation and analysis of existing visual communications, students gain insight into how the selection of methods, media, materials and the application of design elements and design principles can create effective visual communications for specific audiences and purposes. They investigate and experiment with the use of manual and digital methods, media and materials to make informed decisions when selecting suitable approaches for the development of their own design ideas and concepts.
Students use their research and analysis of visual communication designers to support the development of their own work. They establish a brief and apply design thinking skills through the design process. They identify and describe a client, two distinctly different needs of that client, and the purpose, target audience, context and constraints relevant to each need.
Design from a variety of historical and contemporary design fields is considered by students to provide directions, themes or starting points for investigation and inspiration for their own work. Students use observational and visualisation drawings to generate a wide range of design ideas and apply design thinking strategies to organise and evaluate their ideas. The brief and investigation work underpin the developmental and refinement work undertaken in Unit 4.
Unit 4: Design development and presentation
The focus of this unit is the development of design concepts and two final presentations of visual communications to meet the requirements of the brief. This involves applying the design process twice to meet each of the stated needs. Having completed their brief and generated ideas in Unit 3, students continue the design process by developing and refining concepts for each need stated in the brief. They utilise a range of digital and manual two- and three-dimensional methods, media and materials. They investigate how the application of design elements and design principles creates different communication messages with their target audience. As students revisit stages to undertake further research or idea generation when developing and presenting their design solutions, they develop an understanding of the iterative nature of the design process. Ongoing reflection and evaluation of design solutions against the brief assists students with keeping their endeavours focused. Students refine and present two visual communications within the parameters of the brief. They reflect on the design process and the design decisions they took in the realisation of their ideas. They evaluate their visual communications and devise a pitch to communicate their design thinking and decision making to the client.